Healthcare Technology Vendor News

Critical Vulnerability Affects Medtronic CareLink Monitors, Programmers, and ICDs

Two vulnerabilities have been identified in the Conexus telemetry protocol used by Medtronic MyCarelink monitors, CareLink monitors, CareLink 2090 programmers, and 17 implanted cardiac devices. Both vulnerabilities require a low level of skill to exploit, although adjacent access to a vulnerable device would be required to exploit either vulnerability.

The most serious vulnerability, rated critical, is a lack of authentication and authorization controls in the Conexus telemetry protocol which would allow an attacker with adjacent short-range access to a vulnerable device to inject, replay, modify, and/or intercept data within the telemetry communication when the product’s radio is turned on.

An attacker could potentially change memory in a vulnerable implanted cardiac device which could affect the functionality of the device.

The vulnerability is being tracked as CVE-2019-6538 and has been assigned a CVSS v3 base score of 9.3.

A second, medium severity vulnerability concerns the transmission of sensitive information in cleartext. Since the Conexus telemetry protocol does not use encryption, an attacker with adjacent short-range access to a vulnerable product could intercept communications and obtain sensitive patient data.

The vulnerability is being tracked as CVE-2019-6540 and has been assigned a CVSS v3 base score of 6.5.

The vulnerabilities affect the following Medtronic devices:

  • Versions 24950 and 24952 of MyCareLink Monitor
  • Version 2490C of CareLink Monitor
  • CareLink 2090 Programmer

All models of the following implanted cardiac devices are affected:

  • Amplia CRT-D
  • Claria CRT-D
  • Compia CRT-D
  • Concerto CRT-D
  • Concerto II CRT-D
  • Consulta CRT-D
  • Evera ICD
  • Maximo II CRT-D and ICD
  • Mirro ICD
  • Nayamed ND ICD
  • Primo ICD
  • Protecta ICD and CRT-D
  • Secura ICD
  • Virtuoso ICD
  • Virtuoso II ICD
  • Visia AF ICD
  • Viva CRT-D

Medtronic has implemented additional controls for monitoring and responding to any cases of improper use of the telemetry protocol used by affected ICDs. Further mitigations will be applied to vulnerable devices through future updates.

In the meantime, users of the devices should ensure home monitors and programmers cannot be accessed by unauthorized individuals and home monitors should only be used in private environments. Only home monitors, programmers, and ICDs that have been supplied by healthcare providers or Medtronic representatives should be used.

Unapproved devices should not be connected to monitors through USB ports and physical connections and programmers should only be used to connect with ICDs in hospital and clinical environments.

The vulnerabilities were identified by multiple security researchers who reported them to NCCIC. (Peter Morgan of Clever Security; Dave Singelée and Bart Preneel of KU Leuven; former KU Leuven researcher Eduard Marin; Flavio D. Garcia; Tom Chothia; and Rik Willems.

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Is DocuSign HIPAA Compliant?

Can DocuSign be used by healthcare organizations in connection with electronic protected health information (ePHI) without violating HIPAA Rules? Is DocuSign HIPAA compliant?

DocuSign is a San Francisco-based provider of electronic signature technology and transaction management services. Via DocuSign, companies can send documents such as contracts to customers and business associates and obtain their electronic signatures to confirm that they have read the document and agree to any terms and conditions contained therein.

In healthcare, eSignature services can streamline administrative tasks and save many hours of chasing up paperwork. The DocuSign solution can be used by healthcare providers for a range of different purposes, including obtaining eSignatures on SLAs, business associate agreements, credentialing forms, and patient consent forms.

However, if the service is used in connection with any electronic protected health information, DocuSign would be classed as a business associate. HIPAA requires all business associates to enter into a HIPAA-compliant business associate agreement with covered entities prior to being provided with or given access to ePHI.

Is DocuSign HIPAA Compliant?

When considering if DocuSign is HIPAA compliant, a key test is whether the company is willing to sign a BAA with a HIPAA-covered entity. On the DocuSign website, the company states that it is prepared to sign a BAA and has already done so with many healthcare providers and life science customers.

DocuSign also confirms that while the company does not access ePHI, any ePHI that passes through its service is secured. DocuSign also confirms that it is in full compliance with the privacy and security requirements of HIPAA and its service meets HHS standards for digital signatures.

In order to obtain a BAA, customers must first sign up for an Enterprise account with DocuSign and they must ensure the signed BAA is obtained prior to using the service with any ePHI.

Provided a BAA is obtained, DocuSign can be considered a HIPAA compliant eSignature service.

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Is Calendly HIPAA Compliant?

Calendly is a popular tool that is used by many businesses to schedule meetings and appointments, but can Calendly be used by healthcare organizations? Is Calendly HIPAA compliant?

Businesses can waste a considerable amount of time scheduling appointments and meetings. Lengthy email exchanges and phone tag are commonplace. Calendly aims to eliminate the time wasted attempting to connect with others and the platform can reduce no-show rates through automated email and text reminders. The solution integrates with Google Calendar, iCloud calendar, Office 365, Salesforce, and GoToMeeting and other popular software platforms and can also be integrated directly into business websites to allow customers to schedule appointments directly.

The platform is used by healthcare organizations for scheduling internal meetings, but in order to use Calendly with any electronic protected health information, healthcare organizations would first need to enter into a HIPAA-compliant business associate agreement with Calendly.

Is Calendly HIPAA Compliant?

Calendly explains on its website that the platform is secure and all data uploaded is protected. Data sent to and stored by the scheduling tool is protected by 256-bit encryption and Calendly is hosted on Amazon Web Services, which is a HIPAA-compliant hosting solution. Calendly cannot read medical charts and other private information as it only reads the busy/free status of calendar events to avoid double bookings.

While secure, Calendly explains in the help section of its website that “Calendly should not be used for collecting Protected Health Information” and that the solution should not be used for asking “any personal or medical questions in the question form invitees complete when scheduling.” Calendly also does not sign business associates with HIPAA covered entities.

As such, Calendly is not a HIPAA-compliant scheduling tool. The tool can be used by healthcare organizations, just not in connection with any ePHI. Healthcare organizations should ensure that only HIPAA-compliant scheduling tools are used for booking patient appointments.

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Is Evernote HIPAA Compliant?

Evernote is a useful cloud-based service that allows users to take notes, create to do lists, plan projects, and collaborate with teams, but is Evernote HIPAA compliant? Can Evernote be used in healthcare by physicians and other healthcare professionals without violating HIPAA Rules?

Evernote serves as an easily accessible repository for a wide range of information, including documents, audio files, images, and video files. One of the key features of Evernote which makes it so useful is the ability to automatically synch files and notes across multiple devices.

Evernote is available as a free app or a paid service for businesses and does incorporate access controls and security features such as single sign-on (SSO) and two-factor authentication to prevent unauthorized use of the applications.  Evernote stores data on the Google Cloud platform, which can be HIPAA compliant. Encryption is also supported by Evernote for Mac and Evernote for Windows Desktop. In-note encryption uses an AES 128-bit key.

Evernote is designed to make data sharing as easy as possible, which should raise a red flag if you are thinking about using Evernote with protected health information or files containing protected health information – patients documents or dictated notes for instance.

Is Evernote HIPAA Compliant?

So, with the above security controls, is Evernote HIPAA compliant? While the security controls mentioned above do offer some protection against unauthorized access, they are not currently sufficient to meet the requirements of the HIPAA Security Rule. Further, Evernote does not sign business associate agreements with HIPAA covered entities.

Therefore, Evernote is not a HIPAA compliant note taking app and it should therefore not be used in connection with any protected health information.

There are alternatives that can be used in its place.  You can read more about these on the links below:

Is Google Keep HIPAA Compliant?

Is Microsoft OneNote HIPAA Compliant?

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Sandboxing and DMARC Authentication Added to SpamTitan to Improve Email Threat Detection

Despite increased investment in cybersecurity, healthcare organizations still struggle to protect against advanced phishing threats and email impersonation attacks. Detection of new malware threats can also be a major challenge for small to medium sized healthcare organizations and managed service providers.

To better serve the healthcare market and improve protection against sophisticated phishing attacks and zero-day malware, TitanHQ has announced it has added two new features to its SpamTitan spam filtering solution: DMARC email authentication and sandboxing.

Due to the increase in email impersonation attacks, the Department of Homeland Security issued a binding operational directive in 2017 that required all executive branch agencies to fully adopt Domain-based Message Authentication, Reporting and Conformance (DMARC) to protect against email impersonation attacks and domain spoofing. DMARC authentication has now been incorporated into SpamTitan to improve detection of domain spoofing phishing attacks and prevent these phishing emails from reaching end users’ inboxes.

New malware and ransomware variants are now being released at unprecedented levels. Detecting these new malware threats require more than AV solutions. To better protect users against these new email-based malware threats, TitanHQ has added a new Bitdefender-powered sandboxing feature to SpamTitan.

Suspicious file attachments are now sent to the sandbox where they can be detonated and analyzed for malicious actions. Within this secure environment, files can be assessed safely to identify obfuscated malware, new malware threats, attempts to download malicious payloads, and calls to c2 servers. A broad range of file types are sent to the sandbox, including applications, executable files, and office documents.

“The sandbox service analyzes files by leveraging purpose-built, advanced machine learning algorithms, decoys and anti-evasion techniques, anti-exploit, and aggressive behavior analysis,” explained TitanHQ. “All results are checked across known threats in an extensive array of online repositories, and all in just a few minutes.” If files are confirmed as malicious, they are reported to the Bitdefender’s Global Protective Network and the threat is blocked globally.

“I’m delighted to launch both features today and we will continue with our commitment to continually invest in, develop and improve SpamTitan email security,” explained TitanHQ CEO Ronan Kavanagh. “These new features will help healthcare clients improve their defences against advanced malware and sophisticated phishing attacks.”

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Is Return Path HIPAA Compliant?

Return Path is an email marketing and optimization platform that allows businesses to automate and analyze their email marketing campaigns but is Return Path HIPAA compliant? Can the email marketing platform be used by healthcare organizations without violating HIPAA Rules?

Sending Marketing Emails to Patients and Health Plan Members

Before any healthcare organization can use an email service for sending marketing emails that contain electronic protected health information (ePHI) they must first:

  • Obtain consent from patients/plan members to receive marketing communications
  • Ensure that the service provider has appropriate security controls to protect the confidentiality of ePHI stored by or used by the platform
  • Ensure that ePHI can be uploaded to the platform securely without placing the information at risk of compromise
  • Enter into a HIPAA-compliant business associate agreement (BAA) with the service provider

Marketing messages are not included in the HIPAA Privacy Rule’s TPO definition. Consent must be obtained in writing from patients/members before ePHI can be used for marketing purposes.

A BAA is required, as the uploading of ePHI to a mailing service counts as a disclosure of ePHI. The service provider is considered a business associate and is required to be informed of its responsibilities with respect to HIPAA and must agree to abide by HIPAA Rules.

Provided the above conditions are met, a HIPAA-covered entity can use a third-party platform for sending marketing emails.

Is Return Path HIPAA Compliant?

Return Path naturally has a range of security protections in place to ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability data uploaded to its platform. However, Return Path makes no mention of HIPAA or business associate agreements in its terms and conditions.

Return Path also states in its T&Cs that it is the responsibility of users of its platform to ensure they comply with appropriate laws and regulations.

So, is Return Path HIPAA compliant? Without a BAA, Return Path is not a HIPAA compliant email service and cannot therefore be used in connection with any ePHI.

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Is Mandrill HIPAA Compliant?

Is Mandrill HIPAA compliant? Can MailChimp’s transactional email service be used by healthcare organizations without violating HIPAA Rules?

Use of Mandrill by Healthcare Organizations

Mandrill is a transactional email offering from MailChimp, the leading automated email marketing platform. Mandrill allows businesses to automatically send emails to customers and individuals that interact with their web apps and connects to MailChimp via an API.

Transactional emails differ from marketing emails in that they are programmed to be triggered by events such as password resets, confirmation of placement of orders, welcome messages, and sending receipts. In contrast to marketing emails, which require an opt-in from patients/plan members under HIPAA Rules, in most cases, transactional emails do not.

That does not mean that there are no HIPAA issues for healthcare organizations that are considering using Mandrill. Any email service used by a healthcare organization that requires electronic protected health information (ePHI) to be uploaded would have to have privacy and security safeguards built into the platform to prevent unauthorized ePHI access and an audit trail would need to be maintained. Any ePHI uploaded would need to be secured in transit, and stored data would need to be encrypted.

If the service is to be used with any ePHI, the service provider would be classed as a business associate and a business associate agreement would therefore be required.

Most service providers that support HIPAA compliance and are prepared to enter into a business associate agreement with HIPAA-covered entities make it clear that they support HIPAA compliance and offer a BAA.

Is Mandrill HIPAA Compliant?

Users of Mandrill are bound by the terms and conditions of MailChimp. You can find out more about Mailchimp and HIPAA compliance here, but to summarize that post, MailChimp states that “You’re responsible for determining whether the Service is suitable for you to use in light of your obligations under any regulations like HIPAA” and since, at the time of writing, MailChimp does not offer a BAA, neither MailChimp or Mandrill are HIPAA compliant.

MailChimp and Mandrill can be used by healthcare organizations, but since they are not HIPAA compliant they cannot be used in connection with any ePHI.

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Is Marketo HIPAA Compliant?

Marketo is a marketing automation solution for lead management and email marketing that was recently acquired by Adobe. Can Marketo be used by healthcare organizations in connection with ePHI? Is Marketo HIPAA compliant?

Healthcare Marketing

Healthcare organizations looking for a marketing automation platform need to ensure the platform provider complies with HIPAA regulations if the platform is to be used in connection with electronic protected health information.

Healthcare organizations can use marketing automation platforms for a range of purposes without having to enter into a business associate agreement (BAA) with the solution provider, but if the solution is to be used with ePHI, a BAA is essential.

HIPAA places restrictions on uses and disclosures of ePHI by HIPAA covered entities. ePHI can be used and disclosed for the purposes of providing treatment, in relation to payment for healthcare, or for healthcare operations (TPO) without having to obtain authorization from patients. Other uses and disclosures, which include marketing, require authorizations from patients.

HIPAA defines marketing as “communication to an individual about a product or service that encourages the individual to purchase or use that product or service.” – See 45 CFR 164.501(1).

Prior to sending any marketing communications, HIPAA-covered entities must obtain authorization from patients/members in writing, either physically or electronically with an e-signature.

Is Marketo HIPAA Compliant?

Marketo states on its website that its platform has Privacy Shield certification and has been SOC2 certified and Marketo has implemented safeguards to ensure customer data are kept private and confidential.

Connections to Marketo are encrypted using high-grade 2048-bit certificates and user sessions are protected by unique session tokens and require re-verification for each transaction. Marketo performs regular scans of its network and systems for vulnerabilities and patches are applied promptly. Marketo also performs pen tests and has its products assessed by independent third parties. Physical, technical and administrative safeguards are implemented to keep software, hardware, and data secured and all clients’ data are stored in separate databases.

Marketo’s use policy states that customers must not provide Marketo access to or upload “any of the following categories of data: social security numbers; passport or visa numbers; driver’s license numbers; taxpayer or employee ID; financial account or payment card information; passwords; medical or health records or information reflecting the payment of such treatment.”

So, is Marketo HIPAA compliant?


The Marketo website and associated forums contain no mention of a BAA. Without a BAA the solution cannot be considered HIPAA compliant and should not be used with ePHI.

That does not mean Marketo cannot be used by healthcare organizations. Many healthcare organizations, including GE Healthcare, Kindred Healthcare, Boston Children’s Hospital and EHR provider Allscripts use the platform. It is the responsibility of users of the platform to ensure that HIPAA Rules are followed.

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Is SparkPost HIPAA Compliant?

SparkPost is a popular email delivery and analytics platform that is used by many enterprises to communicate with customers, but can SparkPost be used by healthcare organizations in connection with electronic protected health information (ePHI)? Is SparkPost HIPAA compliant?

HIPAA Compliant Email Solutions for Healthcare Organizations

As part of our series of posts assessing software solutions and cloud services for their suitability for use by healthcare organizations required to comply with HIPAA Rules, we have assessed SparkPost to determine whether the company supports HIPAA compliance and whether its platform can be used in a HIPAA compliant manner.

SparkPost is the leading worldwide email delivery and analytics platform and is used to send 37% of all business-to consumer emails. The email solution caters to organizations of all sizes and delivers powerful analytics. The platform incorporates a range of security measures, including anti-phishing controls to reduce the risk of email impersonation attacks and the company has achieved SOC 2 Type 2 certification.

For healthcare organizations looking for an email solution to communicate with patients and health plan members, email security is only part of the story. Other controls are required for HIPAA compliance, so does SparkPost satisfy those requirements?

Is SparkPost HIPAA Compliant?

The terms and conditions for users of SparkPost prohibit the uploading of highly sensitive information to the platform, including Social Security numbers, government issued ID numbers, financial information, insurance information, and medical and health data. SparkPost even specifically states in its T&Cs that the platform cannot be used in connection with any information classed as protected health information under HIPAA Rules. It is therefore no surprise that SparkPost does not offer healthcare organizations a business associate agreement (BAA) which is a requirement for HIPAA compliance.

No BAA and prohibition of uploading ePHI mean SparkPost is not a HIPAA-compliant email service.

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